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    Academic paper recommendation based on heterogeneous network embedding
    Kan XU,Rui-xin LIU,Hong-fei LIN,Hai-feng LIU,Jiao-jiao FENG,Jia-ping LI,Yuan LIN,Bo XU
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2020, 55 (11): 35-45.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.1.2019.017
    Abstract142)   HTML13)    PDF(pc) (4302KB)(384)       Save

    This paper focuses on the extraction and utilization of information from heterogeneous information network recommendation, and proposes a heterogeneous network embedding-based academic paper recommendation method. The proposed method uses the random walk strategy guided by the meta-path to generate the sequence of nodes. Then, for each meta-path, the unique embedding representation of nodes is learned by maximizing its co-occurrence probability with the adjacent nodes in the sequence obtained from the given meta-path. In addition, in order to fuse the low-dimensional representation of nodes in differentmetapaths into the final output of heterogeneous information network embedding, the different fusion functions are designed to achieve this goal, and attention mechanism is introduced to recommendation system. This paper applies the heterogeneous information network based on meta paths to solve the problem that most recommendation methods based on heterogeneous information networks rely on path similarity, which can not fully mine the potential structural characteristics of users and projects. We use DBLP data set to validate the effectiveness of the proposed model, which achieved better performance compared with the traditional model on RMSE.

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    Itô-Henstock integration of the fuzzy stochastic process
    GONG Zeng-tai, SU Ai
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (8): 1-13.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2019.235
    Abstract403)      PDF(pc) (900KB)(369)       Save
    The fuzzy Itô-Henstock integral and the fuzzy Itô-McShane integrals for adapted fuzzy stochastic process with respect to a Brownian motion are defined and their properties are discussed. In addition, the characterization theorems are given and their interrelation of between the fuzzy Itô-Henstock integral and the fuzzy Itô-McShane integral is investigated. The result shows that the fuzzy Itô-Henstock integral is equivalent to the fuzzy Itô-McShane integral when its primitive of fuzzy Itô-Henstock integral is Itô absolutely continuous.
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    Application impacts analysis on natural forestry management for pine plantation in central and southern mountainous area of Shandong province
    Chun-hui LING,Ming-zhong ZHANG,Gui-yun LYU,Hao-ran CUI,Pan YAP,Ye WEI,Sheng-yuan LIU,Feng-yun MA,Hua-tian WANG,Xiu-mei LIU,Ling MA
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2020, 55 (11): 8-17.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2020.199
    Abstract74)   HTML12)    PDF(pc) (2192KB)(358)       Save

    The near-natural management experiments were carried out at three forestry stations of Culaishan, Taishan and Mingguangsi, with long-time thinning possesses of 2, 10 and 3 years, respectively. The results revealed that: (1) The effects of thinning management could promote the seedling growth compared to the controlled treatment (CK), the main height, diameter at breast height (DBH) and canopy diameter increased by 3.13%-12.89%, 3.03%-8.91% and 2.75%-25.91%, respectively. Similarly, the annual mean diameter of residual trees height, DBH and diameter of canopy also improved by 21.43%-66.67%, 9.21%-26.15% and 64.29%-300% when suffered to near-natural processing. (2) The intermediate cutting changed the canopy gap, led to a decrease in crown closure. On the contrary, it caused an increase in plant species of shrub layer especially for the light-loving plants like Platycladus orientalis and Ailanthus altissima. Consistently, it could contribute to the herbs diversity, which caused improvements of diversity indexes like Simpson, Shannon-wiener and Gleason in pure pine stand and mixed pine-oak forest compared with that in CK. At the same time, the important values of Digitaria sanguinalis, Spodiopogon sibiricus and Carex rigescens elevated. (3) The tending measurement resulted in an improvement of soil pH, and a decrease of bulk density. As well, it had a potential to accelerate the nutrient metabolism for the increasing enzyme activities of catalase, phosphatase, sucrase and urease, which increased by 6.74%-29.33%, 4.79%-4.99%, 2.13%-10.34% and 1.25%-25.56%, respectively. It could be seen that the tending operation could benefit to the stand growth, enrich the undergrowth diversity, also improve the soil quality in different stand conditions.

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    BERT-IDCNN-CRF for named entity recognition in Chinese
    Ni LI,Huan-mei GUAN,Piao YANG,Wen-yong DONG
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2020, 55 (1): 102-109.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.2.2019.076
    Abstract1519)   HTML42)    PDF(pc) (2001KB)(356)       Save

    The pre-trained language model, BERT (bidirectional encoder representations from transformers), has shown promising result in NER (named entity recognition) due to its ability to represent rich syntactic, grammatical information in sentences and the polysemy of words. However, most existing BERT fine-tuning based models need to update lots of model parameters, facing with expensive time cost at both training and testing phases. To handle this problem, this work presents a novel BERT based language model for Chinese NER, named BERT-IDCNN-CRF (BERT-iterated dilated convolutional neural network-conditional random field). The proposed model utilizes traditional BERT model to obtain the context representation of the word as the input of IDCNN-CRF. At training phase, the model parameters of BERT in the proposed model remain unchanged so that the proposed model can reduce parameters training while maintaining polysemy of words. Experimental results show that the proposed model obtains significant training time with acceptable test error.

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    Comparative study on genetic structure of three color variants of the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) based on mitochondrial and ribosomal genes
    Zhan-sheng GUO,Zhen WANG,Xu-guang HOU,Hai-tao ZHANG
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2020, 55 (11): 1-7.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2020.231
    Abstract85)   HTML15)    PDF(pc) (869KB)(323)       Save

    The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus is an important marine aquatic species in China. Selecting good breeding is a major issue for sea cucumber aquaculture, and body color is chosen as an important consideration. In order to explore the genetic structure and phylogenetic relationship of sea cucumber populations with different body color characteristics, 16S rRNA, COⅠ and 18S rRNA-ITS-28S rRNA sequences were amplified and sequenced. The results showed that the lengths of 16S rRNA, COⅠ and 18S rRNA-ITS-28S rRNA sequences were 812-830 bp, 877-915 bp and 1 536-1 572 bp, respectively. In the green, white and purple morphs of the sea cucumber, 4/5/5, 5/3/4, and 4/4/3 haplotypes were detected in 16S rRNA, COⅠ and 18S rRNA-ITS-28S rRNA sequences, respectively. The number of polymorphic loci in the COⅠ sequences was the highest, and that of 16S rRNA sequences was the smallest. The genetic distances of 16S rRNA, COⅠ and 18S rRNA-ITS-28S rRNA sequences among three color morphs were both small, ranging from 0-0.014 7, 0-0.021 2, and 0-0.010 3, respectively, and they did not reach the species differentiation level. The phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the COⅠ sequences, and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus was chose as the outgroup. The results showed that the white sea cucumbers were clustered into one branch, the purple and green sea cucumbers were cross-aggregated with each other and could not be distinguished.

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    Fault tracing method of industrial production control data network based on SDG simplified model
    Yan-hua YANG,Li-gang YAO
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2020, 55 (11): 46-57.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2020.353
    Abstract85)   HTML9)    PDF(pc) (1763KB)(314)       Save

    For the fault diagnosis and source tracing in industrial production control data network, this paper proposes a solution based on SDG simplified model. Firstly, a SDG model is established based on the structural characteristics of the industrial production control data network, then the search space for fault location is reduced through hierarchical and demarcated modeling method.On this basis, according to the observed signal amount extracted when the business alarm occurs, analyse the survival of the nodes based on the longitudinal data and survival data. Secondly, combined with the analysis of the characteristics of network faults, the single-node fault detemination method is used to determine whether each node device is faulty. Finally, based on the fault cause classification of the fault tracing database in the traceability diagnosis rules, the root cause of the network fault is determined. Through the test and verification method, the feasibility of the proposed method in the industrial production control data network is verified, which can meet the requirements of rapid fault tracing.

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    Cut sets of outer P-fuzzy sets and extended rough sets models
    HAO Xiu-mei, LIU Ji-qin
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2020, 55 (10): 1-6.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2020.196
    Abstract158)      PDF(pc) (384KB)(256)       Save
    The P-fuzzy sets are a pair of inner and outer P-fuzzy sets. Inner and outer P-fuzzy sets are two different kinds of dynamic fuzzy sets. The cut sets method is frequently used in fuzzy sets discussed. The concepts of λ-cut sets, strong λ-cut sets, interval cut sets and cut sets granularity are proposed, and the cut sets and interval cut sets granularity theorems of outer P-fuzzy sets are discussed. Then, the interval cut sets decomposition theorems of outer P-fuzzy sets are given. By using the concept of the outer P-fuzzy rough membership function, four rough sets extended models are proposed such as FF) rough sets, (1F,0F) rough sets, FF)probability rough sets and FF) variable precision rough sets. The FF)rough sets theorems of the outer P-fuzzy sets are discussed. In the end, the quantitative characteristics and relationship theorem are given.
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    Pricing strategy of vehicles and cargos matching platform in the sharing economy
    Yun-miao GUI,Zhong WU,Hong-chun HU
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2020, 55 (1): 69-76,85.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2019.001
    Abstract305)   HTML18)    PDF(pc) (1701KB)(247)       Save

    In order to improve the competitive advantage and performance of the vehicles and cargos matching platform, the article analyzes the characteristic of service providers of vehicles and cargos matching platform. By dividing it into professional and non-professional service providers, a game model of the vehicles and cargos matching platform is constructed. The result show that, if platforms' two sides are single-homing, the vehicles and cargos matching platform would charges the same fee for two kinds of suppliers, but if platforms' one side is multi-homing, the vehicles and cargos matching platform tend to charge high access price for non-specialist suppliers and lower access price for professional suppliers. Moreover, a strategy of accessing to suppliers firstly would be more beneficial to the oligopoly vehicles and cargos matching platform.

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    Reversible data hiding in homomorphic encrypted domain based on Paillier
    Min-qing ZHANG,Neng ZHOU,Meng-meng LIU,Han WANG,Yan KE
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2020, 55 (3): 1-8,18.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.2.2019.021
    Abstract281)   HTML123)    PDF(pc) (5044KB)(247)       Save

    Based on the homomorphism and probability characteristics of Paillier cryptosystem, a reversible data hiding in homomorphic encrypted domain based on Paillier is proposed. First, the original image is divided into blocks. The pixel groups randomly selected by the image owner have one reference pixel and eight target pixels. Least significant bits (LSBs) of reference pixel and all bits of target pixel are self-embedded into other parts of the image by a method of RDH. In order to avoid overflow when embedding data, LSBs of the reference pixel are reset to zero before encryption. The encrypted reference pixel replaces the target pixels surrounding it, thereby constructing mirror central ciphertext. In a set of mirroring central ciphertext, the data hider embeds data in the LSBs of the target pixels by homomorphic addition, while the reference pixel remains unchanged. The receiver can directly extract the extra information by modular multiplication inverse between the target pixels and the corresponding reference pixel or directly extract the secret information by plaintext subtraction and can restore the original image without loss. The experimental results show that the average embedding rate of the algorithm is 0.18 bpp (bit per pixel) under the premise of ensuring the quality of the directly decrypted image.

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    Optimal control of a size-structured system with two species in periodic environments
    LIANG Li-yu, LUO Zhi-xue
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (9): 69-75.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2018.721
    Abstract299)      PDF(pc) (391KB)(203)       Save
    The optimal control of a prey-predator population system with size-structure in periodic environments is studied. First of all, the existence of the optimal solution of optimal control is proved by applying Mazur theorem in functional analysis. Then, the adjoint system is derived and the necessary conditions for optimal control are obtained by means of tangent and normal cones in nonlinear analysis.
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    Plant diversity in nature reserves of Shandong Province
    Xiu-hua ZHANG,Hai-ying QI,Ren-qing WANG,Jian LIU
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (7): 1-10.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2019.136
    Abstract475)   HTML15)    PDF(pc) (3185KB)(202)       Save

    The plant diversity of 25 nature reserves above provincial-level with high species diversity in Shandong Province are investigated, and there were 175 families, 918 genera and 2 362 vascular plant species are found, which protected more than 93% vascular plant species in Shandong Province. Qingdao Laoshan provincial nature reserve has the highest plant diversity, followed by Taishan provincial nature reserve and Kunyu mountain national nature reserve among the studied nature reserves by using several biological diversity measurement analysis. A total of 152 rare and endangered plant species were found in the studied nature reserves, and Qingdao Laoshan provincial nature reserve has the most abundant species. According to the existing data, there are 289 alien plant species in the studied area, of which 98 invasive species. We found that all the studied nature reserves have been invaded by alien plant species, and the number of alien herbaceous is far more than alien woody plant. In addition, the reserves with abundant species are invaded by a larger number of alien plant species. The above research can provide scientific basis for plant diversity protection and management of nature reserve in Shandong Province.

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    Hidden attractor with two memristors and Hamilton energy control
    MU Na-na, AN Xin-lei, XU Hao-nan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (9): 91-97.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2018.708
    Abstract342)      PDF(pc) (5395KB)(201)       Save
    Based on the Kirchhoffs law, a nonlinear chaotic circuit model is designed by including a flux-controlled memristor and a charge-controlled memristor. The hidden attractor is found through analyzing characteristics of the equilibrium points. And then, simulation and comparison studies of bifurcation diagram and phase trajectory and Poincaré map of parameter are carried out by simulation software. The Hamiltonian energy function of the memristor system is calculated according to Helmholtz theorem, and the relationships between the current and the energy are discussed. Based on this, the new Hamilton energy control method is proposed to control the memristor system to the desired states by choosing different control parameter.
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    Topic tag popularity prediction based on multi-dimensional features
    Xin-le WANG,Wen-feng YANG,Hua-ming LIAO,Yong-qing WANG,Yue LIU,Xiao-ming YU,Xue-qi CHENG
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2020, 55 (1): 94-101.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.1.2018.136
    Abstract321)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (958KB)(196)       Save

    The characteristics of user network structure information and topic tags such as sentiment and regionality are analyzed. A popularity prediction model that considers the user's fan network structure characteristics and the subject tag's own characteristics is proposed. Experiments have proved that the newly proposed feature is effective and has a high reference value for predicting the popularity of future topic tags.

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    vTCM: a virtualized trusted cryptography module based on the virtualization of physical trusted computing environment
    Jun HU,Zi-peng DIAO
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (7): 77-88.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.2.2018.211
    Abstract463)   HTML7)    PDF(pc) (1257KB)(195)       Save

    The trust of virtual machine is one of the key issues of virtual machine security. As the source of computer trust, the application of trust cryptography module(TCM) in virtual machine gets more and more attention. A virtual trust cryptography module scheme is presented, which designs a physical vTCM(virtual trusted cryptography module) running environment which can be implemented by expand current TCM(trusted cryptography module) scheme to several switchable vTCM scene, and schedule these vTCM scene to support the TCM access of virtual machines, assign a bound vTCM instance to each virtual machine, and all vTCM instances would run in vTCM scene in turn. The scheme can enhance the trust of vTCM, make management and migration of vTCM more easier. The scheme is implemented in KVM virtualization platform, it shows a good compatibility with existing systems.

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    Trajectory model of area crowd based on WiFi positioning
    Yang XU,Jian-zhong SUN,Lei HUANG,Xiao-yao XIE
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (5): 8-20.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.2.2018.200
    Abstract674)   HTML14)    PDF(pc) (8697KB)(195)       Save

    The existing indoor WiFi positioning methods are difficult to resolve the need of crowd trajectory analysis in the large-scale activities and inter-regional. Aiming at this problem, a new crowd location method based on trilateration measurement and signal strength indication (RSSI) for large-scale venues and complex environments is proposed. Crowd positioning in the region, crowd division inside and outside the region, and crowd flow analysis in the region can be achieved. A prediction algorithm based on probability and statistics is used to predict crowd trajectories. A crowd trajectory model in WiFi area is established. A cross regional crowd mobility trajectory model is further established to analyse the flow of crowd in large area inter regional. A proving system of WiFi regional crowd trajectory model is established. Using the data of 2016 Guiyang International Big Data Expo, data visualization analysis is carried out. In this way, the validity of the model is proved.

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    Research on microblog data collection based on multiple hybrid strategy
    Pei-ming WANG,Xing-shu CHEN,Hai-zhou WANG,Wen-xian WANG
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (5): 28-36, 43.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.2.2018.058
    Abstract459)   HTML12)    PDF(pc) (1140KB)(193)       Save

    Microblog is becoming the main social media to spread public information, efficient acquisition of microblog data is important to the analysis of online public opinion. Taking Microblog as the research object, there are three data collection strategies through microblog API, simulated login technology and visitor cookie are studied. A data collection method for microblog based on fusion strategy is proposed. An adaptive concurrent data acquisition algorithm is designed and implemented for the web crawler based on simulated login technology. A high available IP proxy pool is designed to accelerate data acquisition for the web crawler based on visitor Cookie. Experimental results show that the fusion strategy is more effective, complete and stable in microblog data collection.

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    Qualitative analysis of a diffusive predator-prey model with density dependence
    LI Hai-xia
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (9): 54-61.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2018.667
    Abstract304)      PDF(pc) (1828KB)(185)       Save
    The uniqueness of coexistence solutions and asymptotic behavior for a diffusive predator-prey model with density dependence are studied. The sufficient conditions of the existence of coexistence solutions are given by means of the fixed point index theory. Then, by making use of the perturbation theory for linear operators, we discuss the stability and uniqueness of coexistence solutions. Finally, the conditions of the extinction and permanence for the system by the comparison principle for parabolic equations, and the theoretical results of asymptotic behavior for the system are verified by some numerical simulations. The results show that the two species can coexist and the system has a unique coexistence solution under certain conditions.
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    Domestic carbon price fluctuation and regional characteristics based on H-P filtering method
    Shao-hui ZOU,Tian ZHANG,Xiao-xia YAN
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (5): 77-87.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2018.453
    Abstract395)   HTML14)    PDF(pc) (3494KB)(184)       Save

    The price of carbon emission trading in China has obvious volatility and regional differences. Scientifically describing the volatility of carbon emission trading price and analyzing the differences of different regions are conducive to avoiding investment risks, developing carbon market smoothly and improving the pricing ability of domestic carbon market in the international market. It is also particularly important to speed up the establishment of a unified national carbon market. H-P filtering is a commonly used trend decomposition method for economic variables, which can effectively analyze the seasonal variation law in time series data. Based on monthly data of carbon emission trading prices in seven major regions of China from December 2013 to June 2018, H-P filtering method is used to empirically study the fluctuation law and regional characteristics of domestic carbon prices. The results show that the domestic carbon price has a significant characteristic of "falling in fluctuation", showing 3 complete cycles, the time range of each cycle is 10~22 months. Peak and valley values show a downward trend in varying degrees, and all of them change from positive to negative, the cycle types show a steep downward trend. From the regional perspective, the volatility of carbon emission trading price in Tianjin and Beijing is more obvious, while the fluctuation of carbon emission trading price in Hubei and Chongqing has less impact on Tianjin.

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    Short-term load forecasting model based on autoencoder and PSOA-CNN
    Wen-qing WANG,Ao-yang HAN,Li-tao YU,Zhi-sheng ZHANG
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (7): 50-56.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2018.715
    Abstract473)   HTML7)    PDF(pc) (1064KB)(183)       Save

    A short-term load forecasting model which combines the autoencoder and convolutional neural network optimized by particle swarm optimization is proposed. Firstly, the autoencoder is used to process the relevant variable data, reduce the noise variable of the required data, and improve the prediction efficiency. Then particle swarm optimization is used to optimize the weight and threshold of the convolutional neural network., which can effectively improve the prediction accuracy and prediction speed of the prediction model. By simulating the load data of the actual power grid, it is verified that the proposed model has higher prediction accuracy.

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    Relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem multifunctionality in the Yellow River Delta
    Wen-xin ZHANG,Xiao-li FAN,Qiang WANG,Yong FANG,Yu LIANG
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2020, 55 (1): 110-116.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2019.786
    Abstract265)   HTML5)    PDF(pc) (2117KB)(173)       Save

    The Yellow River Delta is selected as the study area and the relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem multifunctionality is explored. The species richness, Shannon index and Simpson index are positively related to ecosystem multifunctionality, but species richness has a larger effect than Shannon index and Simpson index. High biodiversity has been shown to be especially important for simultaneously sustaining multiple ecosystem functions at high levels. Soil salinity is the main environmental factor that affects the plant diversity and ecosystem multifunctionality. High Soil salinity directly decreases the plant diversity, and indirectly results in the descend of ecosystem multifunctionality.

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    Strong hyper deductive systems in hyper equality algebras
    CHENG Xiao-yun, XIN Xiao-long
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (8): 14-19.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2018.587
    Abstract360)      PDF(pc) (337KB)(166)       Save
    Some types of strong hyper deductive systems in hyper equality algebras are introduced and investigated. Some representations of generated strong hyper deductive systems are given. Then, Two types of important strong hyper deductive systems, namely, implicative and positive implicative strong hyper deductive systems are studied. In particular, characterizations of them are given and the relations between them are discussed.
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    Fuzzing sample optimization method for software vulnerability detection
    Jing ZHANG,Cheng CHEN,Huan-ke ZHENG
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (9): 1-8, 35.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2019.205
    Abstract346)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (681KB)(163)       Save

    Software vulnerability detection Fuzzy testing techniques are commonly used in information physical fusion systems.But there are a large number of redundant test samples in Fuzzing technology, and the sample detection anomaly is less effective. Therefore, this paper proposes a Fuzzing sample optimization method for software vulnerability detection. Firstly, the samples that are not accepted by the software in the random sample are filtered out, and the improved dynamic programming algorithm is used to calculate the sample reduced set, and the number of initial samples is reduced. Then track the stain propagation path during the test, use the improved algorithm of Simhash and Hamming distance to solve the similarity of the sample propagation path, and further reduce the sample redundancy by deleting the samples with higher similarity. Finally, the genetic variation of the sample that triggers the abnormality is constructed. New test samples will increase the validity of the sample. It can be seen from the experimental results that compared with the method based on greedy algorithm and based on abnormal distribution orientation, the proposed method effectively reduces the test sample redundancy and improves the validity of the test sample.

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    Dialogue generation model based on extended keywords information
    Chang-ying HAO,Yan-yan LAN,Hai-nan ZHANG,Jia-feng GUO,Jun XU,Liang PANG,Xue-qi CHENG
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (7): 68-76.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.1.2018.120
    Abstract549)   HTML11)    PDF(pc) (2482KB)(152)       Save

    Noting that people often reply to others based on the keywords in the post. In order to generate meaningful responses about the keywords, we proposed a dialogue generation model based on an attention mechanism with extended keywords information. First, we extract the keywords of the input, and then form the extended keywords set based on the words which are related to the input keywords using the cosine similarity. The words in the extended keywords set affect the response generation with the attention mechanism. Experiments on the Chinese Weibo dataset and the English Twitter dataset show that our model outperforms the traditional seq2seq model and its variations in both the metric-based evaluation and the human-evaluation.

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    The inclusion graph of S-acts
    SUN Shuang, LIU Hong-xing
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (8): 121-126.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2018.504
    Abstract378)      PDF(pc) (430KB)(147)       Save
    Let S be a semigroup and M be an S-act. The inclusion graph of M, denoted by G(M), is the undirected simple graph whose vertices are all non-trivial subact of M and defining two distinct vertices I and J to be adjacent if and only if I⊆J or J⊆I. Some results on completeness, connectivity, diameter, girth, the clique number and the chromatic number of G(M) are presented.
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    Evolutionary game analysis of dual-channel supply chain considering service quality and delay decision
    Feng-shan SI,Jing WANG,Dao-ming DAI
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2020, 55 (1): 86-93, 101.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2018.260
    Abstract204)   HTML5)    PDF(pc) (4802KB)(143)       Save

    Considering the retailer's service quality and delay decision, this paper constructs a delay differential price game model for dual-channel supply chain, explores the existence and local asymptotic stability of Hopf bifurcation in the game model, analyses the influence of decision variables on the stability of the game model, and explores the influence of the stability of the system on the price evolution trend. The results show that the equilibrium strategy of the stabilization system remains unchanged if delayed decision is adopted or not; the game results of the stabilization system converge to the equilibrium strategy, while the game results of the unstable system tend to the limit cycle; the delay decision variables, service quality and price adjustment speed must be adjusted within a certain range to maintain the stability of the system; and the unstable system can be successfully controlled.

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    Weighted estimates of fractional maximal operator and its commutator on weighted λ-central Morrey spaces
    TAO Shuang-ping, YANG Yu-he
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (8): 68-75.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2018.718
    Abstract274)      PDF(pc) (385KB)(142)       Save
    By applying the weighted inequalities and the real variable methods, the boundedness of the fractional maximal operator with rough kernel is obtained in the weighted λ-central Morrey spaces. And also, the boundedness of its commutator generated by a λ-central mean oscillation function is proved.
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    Malicious Office document detection technology based on entropy time series
    An-min ZHOU,Lei HU,Lu-ping LIU,Peng JIA,Liang LIU
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (5): 1-7.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.2.2018.072
    Abstract551)   HTML9)    PDF(pc) (5465KB)(131)       Save

    In order to detect malicious Office (*.docx, *.rtf) documents more accurately, a method based on document entropy time sequence to detect malicious Office documents is proposed. This method converts the difference between the malware and the non malicious document binary to the difference between the power spectrum of the time sequence of the file entropy, and then uses three kinds of machine learning methods, IBK, Random Committe (RC) and Random Forest (RF), to learn and detect the data respectively. The experimental results show that the accuracy of the docx format document for XML compression technology can reach 92.14%, while the accuracy of the rich text format (RTF) file can reach 98.20%.

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    Social network information recommendation method of supporting privacy protection
    Chao ZHANG,Ying LIANG,Hao-shan FANG
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2020, 55 (3): 9-18.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.2.2019.171
    Abstract220)   HTML9)    PDF(pc) (1486KB)(131)       Save

    Aiming at the problem of privacy disclosure caused by information dissemination in social network information recommendation, a kind of social network information recommendation method that supports privacy protection is proposed in combination with information dissemination model. Users′ interests are predicted by friends′ interest, familiarity and interest similarity, and then text matching and recommendation candidate set sorting are carried out. Through personalized privacy preference setting, users are allowed to set restricted access to user list, and privacy protection method is used to calculate the probability of information spreading to blacklist users, and privacy disclosure threshold is set to control the probability of blacklist users accessing privacy blog posts to protect user privacy in information recommendation. Experimental results show that the proposed method can guarantee the recommendation effect and protect user privacy better.

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    Analysis of a stochastic single population system with age-dependent and diffusion in a polluted environment
    HU Yong-liang, LUO Zhi-xue, LIANG Li-yu, FENG Yu-xing
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (9): 62-68.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2019.124
    Abstract332)      PDF(pc) (419KB)(130)       Save
    A new stochastic single population system with age-dependent and diffusion in a polluted environment is formulated and investigated. The existence and uniqueness of the solution of this stochastic system is obtained via It(^overo)s formula in Hilbert space. The general stochastic biological population model with age structure and diffusion is extended by adding toxicant to the population.
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    Unknown protocol message clustering algorithm based on continuous features
    Zheng-yu LU,Guang-song LI,Ying-zhu SHEN,Bin ZHANG
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (5): 37-43.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.2.2018.136
    Abstract390)   HTML4)    PDF(pc) (2089KB)(127)       Save

    Clustering of unknown protocol message sequences is the basis for analyzing the protocol format. Based on the traditional K-means algorithm, this paper proposed a continuous-features-based unknown feature message clustering algorithm, which combines the continuity of protocol format field with string matching method. Firstly, coarsely cluster the measured data sets based on the continuity of the protocol format field, extract the initial clustering center of the K-means algorithm, and then iteratively process the data using the message distance and the iterative algorithm with improved convergence function to further cluster the message. Experiments show that compared with the traditional K-means algorithm, the proposed new method improves the accuracy of clustering by 17.58% and reduces the number of iterations by about 58.27%. Compared with EM algorithm and DBSCAN algorithm, the clustering accuracy and time are significantly improved.

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    Study on coupling relationship between urban land use and ecological environment in cities of the Yellow River Delta
    Hao CHEN,Ren-qing WANG,Jian LIU
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (7): 11-20.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2018.755
    Abstract361)   HTML5)    PDF(pc) (686KB)(126)       Save

    In order to explore the coupling relationship between urban land use and ecological environment, and promote the harmonious development of land use and ecological environment, the core cities of the Yellow River Delta, Dongying and Binzhou, were selected as the study areas. The coupling coordination measure model was used to analyze the land use comprehensive index, the ecological environment comprehensive index and the coupling coordination degree of the two systems from 2002 to 2016. Meanwhile, sensitivity verification was carried out on the weights of indicators. The results showed that the comprehensive index of land use and ecological environment in Dongying and Binzhou had an upward trend from 2002 to 2016, from the perspective of coupling degree and coupling coordination degree, the research areas were in a good coupling stage, and the coordinated development of land use and ecological environment experienced five stages from moderate imbalanced to well coordinated. The weights of indicators determined by the entropy method was reasonable and reliable. The study not only provide the scientific basis for the management of the two cities, but also provide study the method and reference for other similar cities.

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    Review spam detection based on the two-level stacking classification model
    Xiang-wen LIAO,Yang XU,Jing-jing WEI,Ding-da YANG,Guo-long CHEN
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (7): 57-67.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.1.2018.077
    Abstract520)   HTML7)    PDF(pc) (4106KB)(126)       Save

    For the issue of review spam detection, on the one hand, the time and space complexity of existing methods is high when extracting user behavior relationships and training neural network. On the other hand, the non-standard writing format of E-commercial reviews leads to the indistinct contextual features and most experiment did not consider the effect of the imbalance of data. Therefore, we propose a method for review spam detection based on a two-level stacking classification model. In the method, the relationship between users and products is represented by a triplet. In order to characterize user's behavior and reduce complexity, low-dimensional feature representations are obtained by the principal component analysis. Then, the extracted paragraphs vector representation, information entropy and text similarity is represented as discrete feature to avoid indistinct of contextual features. Finally, the three connections are taken as the overall features combining text and behavioral features. These features are regarded as the input of the two-level stacking classification model in order to improve performance in unbalanced dataset. We conducted experiments in the Yelp 2013 dataset. Experimental results show the F1 value of our proposed method is 1.7%—5.2% better than the state-of-the-art method. What's more, the classification performance is significantly improved in the unbalanced dataset.

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    Counting solutions of a binary quadratic congruence equation
    DUAN Ran
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (8): 108-120.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2018.407
    Abstract372)      PDF(pc) (443KB)(124)       Save
    Let n be a positive integer. Denote by Zn the ring of residue classes mod n, and by Z*n the group of units in Zn, i.e. Z*n={s:1≤s≤n and gcd(s,n)=1}. The main purpose of this paper is using congruence conclusion and some results of exponential sums to study the number of elements of the set T(a,b,c,n)={(x,y)∈(Z*n)2:ax2+by2+c≡0 mod n} and give an exact computational formula for the number of elements of T(a,b,c,n).
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    Cyclic controlled quantum teleportation by using a ten-qubit entangled state as the channel
    PENG Jia-yin
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (9): 98-104.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2019.093
    Abstract311)      PDF(pc) (509KB)(124)       Save
    The paper proposes a protocol of cyclic controlled teleportation for three unknown two-qubit states by using a ten-qubit maximally entangled state as the quantum channel. In this protocol, Alice can teleport her two-qubit state of qubits a and a' to Bob, Bob can transfer his two-qubit state of qubits b and b' to Charlie, and Charlie can also transmit his two-qubit state of qubits c and c' to Alice. It is shown that only if the senders Alice, Bob, Charlie and the controller David collaborate with each other, the cyclic controlled quantum teleportation can be realized successfully.
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    Comparison of concentrations and chemical compositions of PM10 during hazy and non-hazy days in Beijing and Islamabad
    Xian-chu WU,Bin CHEN,Tian-xue WEN,Imran SHAHID,Ammara HABIB,Guang-yu SHI
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (7): 42-49, 56.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2019.039
    Abstract322)   HTML3)    PDF(pc) (1755KB)(122)       Save

    In order to study the characteristics of heavy metals, water-soluble inorganic ions and carbon components in winter PM10 in Beijing and Islamabad, PM10 samples were collected at urban site in Beijing and Islamabad from December 2014-January 2015. The concentrations of above three compositions of PM10were analyzed. The results indicated that the concentrations of heavy metals were at high levels during sampling period in both two sites. The concentrations of As、Cr(Ⅵ) in Beijing and Cd、Cr(Ⅵ) in Islamabad were both exceeded the WHO guideline. Heavy metals were enhanced during haze days. The main sources of heavy metals were coal burning and automobile in Beijing, while in Islamabad was mainly automobile according to PCA. Secondary pollution of water-soluble inorganic ions in atmosphere in both sites was heavy. The concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions also enhanced due to automobile. Correlation between OC and EC was strong(especially in non-haze days) in Beijing but it was low in Islamabad. They implied that OC and EC tended to be mainly from the same primary sources and were controlled by similar processes after being emitted in Beijing, mainly due to coal burning and automobile; but the source of carbonaceous species was relatively complex in Islamabad. The concentration of SOC in sampling period in Beijing was 2.58 μg/m3, accounting for only 10.1% of the OC mass concentration; while there was basically no SOC in Islamabad.

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    Information measures of interval valued Pythagorean fuzzy sets and their applications
    SUN Qian-qian, LI Xiao-nan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (9): 43-53.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2019.038
    Abstract354)      PDF(pc) (507KB)(121)       Save
    Entropy, distance and similarity are important information measurement tools in fuzzy sets and their generalization theories. The information metrics research based on interval valued Pythagorean fuzzy sets mostly involves the distance formula of interval valued Pythagorean fuzzy numbers, and rarely involves metrics of ambiguity and similarity. In view of this situation, firstly, the axiomatization definition of entropy, distance and similarity of interval valued Pythagorean fuzzy sets is first proposed. Then study the relationship between entropy, distance and similarity. Finally, the entropy and similarity of the interval valued Pythagorean fuzzy set are applied to the field of pattern recognition. Comparative analysis shows the flexibility and effectiveness of the proposed measures.
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    Convergence and contractivity of boundary value methods for nonlinear delay differential equations
    ZHANG Ru, HAN Xu, LIU Xiao-gang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (8): 97-101.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2018.758
    Abstract286)      PDF(pc) (516KB)(118)       Save
    The boundary value methods are applied to the nonlinear delay differential equations. Under the assumptions of Lipschitz conditions, the convergence and the global contractivity, the weakly global contractivity of the boundary value methods are analyzed. Finally, some numerical experiments are carried out to illustrate the theoretical results.
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    Quantitative characteristics and applications of P-information hidden mining
    Xiu-mei HAO,Ning-ning LI
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (9): 9-14.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2019.189
    Abstract249)   HTML4)    PDF(pc) (410KB)(118)       Save

    The classical set has static characteristics. With the rapid development of science and technology, massive data updates very quickly. Therefore using the classical set to study data mining problems has been limited. It is necessary to involve dynamic characteristics into ordinary set and replace "static" by "dynamic". Thus P-set has the above characteristics. By using P-set and its attribute migration, the granularity and mining degree of internal and external k-order P-information are proposed; also the quantitative relationship between attribute migration and information mining is discussed. The migration information chain theorem and the minimum and maximum mining degree theorem are given. P-information is a new theory and method for dynamic information system knowledge mining. Finally, the application of P-information in data mining is given.

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    Synthesis of novel taxoid-biotin conjugate
    Yun-rong JING,Chang-wei WANG
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (7): 35-41.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2018.264
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    The conjugate is designed to be specific to the biotin receptors overexpressed on tumor cell surface and internalized efficiently through receptor-mediated endocytosis, followed by smooth drug release via glutathione-triggered self-immolation of the linker. An efficient mechanism-based tumor-targeting drug delivery system, based on tumor-specific biotin-receptor mediated endocytosis, has reduced the undesirable side effects associated with the traditional cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents which lack of selectivity to tumor cells and normal cells. The disulfide linker is prepared by subsititution of sulfhydryl group. The tumor-targeting molecule biotin moiety is prepared by conversion of carboxylic acid group to acyl hydrazide group. Fluorotaxane SB-T-12854 with anti multidrug resistance is choosed as th cytotoxic agent. The tumor-targeting drug delivery system is a novel conjugate of a cytotoxic agent (SB-T-12854), a disulfide linker and a tumor-targeting molecule (biotin).

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    Existence of ground states for linear coupled systems of lower critical Choquard type
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE)    2019, 54 (8): 62-67.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2018.670
    Abstract305)      PDF(pc) (339KB)(113)       Save
    To the best of our knowledge, there is few result about linearly coupled systems of Choquard type with the lower critical up to now. The existence of ground state solutions for a class of Choquard-type linear coupled systems with lower critical exponents is studied by variational methods. It is a promotion and supplement to the previous research results.
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