Table of Content

    20 January 2013
    Volume 48 Issue 1
    Characterization and structural control of metalbased nanomaterials
    YANG Jun
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE). 2013, 48(1):  1-22.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.9.2012.001
    Abstract ( 658 )   PDF (6800KB) ( 1041 )   Save
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    The common analytical and characteristic techniques including UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) are briefly introduced in this review article. In addition, in wetchemistry based syntheses, the approaches used to tune the structure of metal-based nanomaterials are categorized and discussed.

    Circular dichroism detection of the effects of denaturants and buffers on the conformation of cold-adapted protease MCP-01 and  mesophilic protease BP01
    HE Hai-lun, CHEN Xiu-lan*
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE). 2013, 48(1):  23-29.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2012.429
    Abstract ( 674 )   PDF (2215KB) ( 1061 )   Save
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    The secondary structure of cold-adapted protease MCP-01 and mesophilic protease BP-01 were investigated by circular dichroism (CD). According to the result of CD spectra, there are lower content of α-helixes and higher content of random in MCP01 than in BP-01, which led to its higher flexibility and lower stability in structure. The temperature leading to loss of 50% secondary structure of protease MCP-01 was lower 10.7℃ than BP-01. The effects of denaturant guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) and 2,2,2Trifluoroethanol (TFE) on cold-adapted protease MCP-01 and mesophilic protease BP-01 were studied. The results of CD spectra indicated that the unfolding concentration of GuHCl for MCP-01 and BP-01 were 1.0 M and 3.0 M, respectively. Moreover, the CD spectra showed that the structure of MCP-01 and BP-01 had no obvious changes when TFE concentrations were lower 20% and 30%, respectively. When TFE concentration was further increased, the structure of MCP-01 and BP-01 began to denature. These results indicated that the stability of MCP-01 was less than that of BP-01 and it was denatured at lower GuHCl or TFE concentration. The conformation changes of protease MCP-01 and BP-01 were studied during incubation. The stability of MCP-01 was affected  significantly by different buffer system and increased successively in the following order: carbonate <TrisHCl <borate. But the stability of BP-01 was same in different buffer. These results suggested that the structure of coldadapted protease MCP-01 was higher flexibility and lower stability, so it was more vulnerable to denaturant or solution environment than mesophilic protease BP-01.

    Purification and anti-tumor activity examination of water-soluble asterosaponin from Asterias rollestoni Bell
    ZHAO Jun1, ZHAO Jing2, FAN Ting-jun1*, YUAN Wen-peng1,3, ZHANG Zheng1, CONG Ri-shan1
    J4. 2013, 48(1):  30-35. 
    Abstract ( 486 )   PDF (1945KB) ( 839 )   Save
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    To develop natural antitumor medicaments from abandoned starfish shells, watersoluble asterosaponin from Asterias rollestoni Bell were isolated, purified and their antitumor bioactivities were examined. After extracted with hot water and purified with macroporous resin column and silica gel column chromatograghy respectively, watersoluble asterosaponin with purity of 99.6% and properties of steroidal saponins was obtained. In vitro antitumor activity examination showed that the purified asterosaponin had high antitumor activity on HeLa cells, SGC7901 gastric cancer cells, A549 lung cancer cells and Bel7402 hepatocarcinoma cells. The inhibiting rate of 50 mg/L asterosaponin to the above four kinds of cancer cells was(92.06±2.60)%, (95.22±2.87)%, (95.04±3.30)% and (91.60±4.30)%, and its corresponding IC50 value to these cells was 7.05, 5.28, 5.32 and 6.16mg/L, respectively. In vivo antitumor activity examination showed that the purified asterosaponin at the dose of 2.10μg/g bodyweight had obvious inhibiting effect on the S180 solid tumor in mice in a dose dependent manner. And tumorinhibiting rate of 10μg/g asterosaponin was as high as 46.27%, higher than that of 10μg/g cyclophosvnamide (CTX, one kind of anticancer drugs). Besides, 2.10μg/g asterosaponin could obviously increase the thymus index and spleen index of the tumor-bearing mice.

    Silence of PID1 gene expression using RNA interference in C2C12 cell line
    YANG Lun, XU Zheng-gang, WANG Hui*, CHEN Qi-mei, CHEN Wei, HU Yan-xia, SHI Yuan, ZHU Hong-lei, ZENG Yong-qing*
    J4. 2013, 48(1):  36-42. 
    Abstract ( 531 )   PDF (2019KB) ( 913 )   Save
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    To construct short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector that can interference PID1 expression in mouse.  Four short hairpin RNA sequences and the negative interfering sequences were designed through mouse PID1 cDNA sequence. Then four corresponding doublestranded DNA sequences were used to construct pGPU6/GFP/Neo vector, namely pGPU6/GFP/Neo-PID1-1, pGPU6/GFP/Neo-PID1-2, pGPU6/GFP/Neo-PID1-3, pGPU6/GFP/Neo-PID1-4 and pGPU6/GFP/NeoshRNANC respectively. They were transfected into the C2C12 cells, in which the silencing or expressing down effect on PID1 expression was investigated by RTPCR and Western blot. The expression vector targeting on PID1 were successfully constructed, and confirmed by sequence analysis. Four expression vectors generated by insert doublestranded DNA sequences, were transfected into the C2C12 cells, after 24 h, the PID1 mRNA expression was decreased by (23.58±1.87)%, (75.44±0.77)%, (70.52±0.41)% and (56.60±3.13)%, respectively, and after 48 h, its protein expression was decreased by (30.15±5.05)%, (71.86±4.85)%, (67.93±2.28)% and (56.81±2.01)%, correspondingly. The constructed expression vector pGPU6/GFP/Neo-PID1-2, pGPU6/GFP/Neo-PID1-3 and pGPU6/GFP/Neo-PID1-4 can effectively inhibit the expression of PID1 mRNA and protein, which could provide a basis for further research on the function and mechanism of PID1.

    Application of DOSY in oligosaccharide mixture analysis
    SUN Xiao-ting1, JIN Lan2*
    J4. 2013, 48(1):  43-45. 
    Abstract ( 482 )   PDF (1579KB) ( 1067 )   Save
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    Structures of carbohydrates are very much complex due to their multiple monosaccharide combinations and glycosidic linkages. Their isolation and purification are also difficult because of their structure similarity. Therefore, structure analysis of carbohydrate is limited and left far more behind that of proteins and nucleic acids. NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) method of DOSY (diffusion ordered spectroscopy) has been used to analyze the mixture of D-glucose (D-Glc) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in this paper. The results suggested that the so-called NMR chromatography can be successfully used as a routine and complement method in the analysis of oligosaccharide mixtures.

    Monte-Carlo simulation of photons transmission at alcohol wavelength in  skin tissue and design of fiber optic probe
    LUO Si-te, LU Li-qian, CUI Ruo-fei, ZHOU Wei-wei, LI Zeng-yong*
    J4. 2013, 48(1):  46-50. 
    Abstract ( 485 )   PDF (1694KB) ( 704 )   Save
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     The transmission characteristics of photons in the skin tissue at alcohol wavelength were studied by using Monte-Carlo simulation method in this study. A fourlayer skin structure model was established in which the optical parameter was determined at alcohol wavelength (1694nm, 1735nm, 2266nm, 2308nm). The Monte-Carlo simulations results showed that the optimal detection distance was 650μm at 1694nm and 1735nm, 450μm at 2266nm and 2308nm. The photons densities showed a decline trend with the increase of detection distance r in the range from 200μm to 1000μm. The number of detected photons increases linearly with the detection width. Based on the above results, an optical fiber probe for alcohol non-invasive testing was designed, and the TE-cooled InGaAs detector was optimized.

    Study on thermal decomposition mechanism of  pentafluoroethane fire extinguishing agent
    MAO Ai-qin1,2, YANG Ming-jun2, 3, YU Hai-yun2, ZHANG Pin1, PAN Ren-ming1*
    J4. 2013, 48(1):  51-55. 
    Abstract ( 581 )   PDF (1206KB) ( 677 )   Save
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    Nine primary pyrolysis pathways of pentafluoroethane (C2HF5) are proposed based on the chemical bond types of the homolytic cleavage. The enthalpy of decomposition reaction for C2F5H, transitionstate molecules, and energies of carbenes have been studied theoretically using DFT/B2LYP/6.31G*, DFT/B2LYP/6.311G**, MP2/6.31G*, and MP2/6.311G** methods. Of a total of 9 primary reaction pathways, the decomposition of C2HF5 to form C2F4 is the most important initiation mechanism. With the Htransfer reaction to CF3CF: carbene, F-transfer reaction to CHF:, and C-C bond fission reaction to CF2H·and CF3·, a trace of products such as C2F6, C4F8 and C4F10 are produced due to the reactions between radical and carbene. It is proved by thermal decomposition that hydrogen fluoride eliminated to form C2F4 is the main reaction between 750℃ and 850℃. As the reaction temperature increases, the thermal decomposition degree of C2F5H become higher. Theoretically calculated results are consistent with the experimental observation.

    Solving the fractional order Bloch equation
    LI Ming, XU Ming-yu
    J4. 2013, 48(1):  56-61. 
    Abstract ( 544 )   PDF (1026KB) ( 649 )   Save
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    The fractional derivative Bloch equations with three fractional derivative parameters are discussed, and their solution is obtained by using Laplace transform techniques and can be expressed in terms of H-Fox functions. The figures in this paper show that the solution of the classical Bloch equations is the special case of the fractional Bloch equations discussed in this paper.

    Separation-reduction on inverse packet reasoning of inverse packet equivalence class
    ZHAO Shu-li1, WANG Jun-chang1, SHI Kai-quan2
    J4. 2013, 48(1):  62-67. 
    Abstract ( 488 )   PDF (823KB) ( 660 )   Save
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    Through improving an ordinary finite cantor set X inverse packet set is introduced by bringing dynamatic feature into X. Inverse packet set consists of an internal inverse packet set F and an outer inverse packet set  which is denoted briefly by a set pair (F,). It can be reduced to an ordinary set in some situations. Inverse Preasoning is a dynamatic reasoning generated by inverse packet sets which is composed of internal inverse packet reasoning and outer inverse packet reasoning together. Utilizing inverse packet sets and inverse packet reasoning, one defines severval important concepts such as inverse packet equivalence class, internal inverse packet equivalence class and outer inverse packet equivalence class and on the other hand, one obtains a relationship between inverse packet equivalence class and ordinary equivalence calss. Finally, one achieves seperation and reduction on inverse packets equivalence class and separation-reduction theorem as well.  Under static-dynamatic conditions, ordinary equivalence class is a special case of inverse packet equivalence class and inverse packet equivalence class is a general form of the ordinary one.

    Assistant sets of P-sets and its property theorems
    YU Xiu-qing, DONG Hua-ling, XU Fen-sheng
    J4. 2013, 48(1):  68-71. 
    Abstract ( 458 )   PDF (797KB) ( 1074 )   Save
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    P-sets (packet sets) is a pair of sets composed of internal P-set (internal packet set) and outer P-set (outer packet set), which has dynamic characteristics. Based on Psets, assistant sets of P-sets and its (σ,τ)-generation are defined. Furthermore, the relationship between assistant sets of P-sets are discussed, the generation theorem and unidentification theorem related to assistant sets are obtained.

    An accelerating algorithm for solving global solution of  generalized geometric programming
    WANG Kai-rong, MA Lin
    J4. 2013, 48(1):  72-77. 
    Abstract ( 469 )   PDF (817KB) ( 1138 )   Save
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     Generalized Geometric Programming(GGP) problems widely occur in engineering design, risk management, manufacturing, and so on. Based on the convex relaxation, an accelerating algorithm for solving global solution of generalized geometric programming was proposed. A new pruning technique was used to cut away the current investigated region in which the global optimal solution does not exist and improve the convergence speed of this algorithm. Convergence of the algorithm was proved. Some experiments are reported to show the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

    Choquet integral representation of premium functional and related properties on capacity space
    YANG Ying, JIANG Long*, SUO Xin-li
    J4. 2013, 48(1):  78-82. 
    Abstract ( 522 )   PDF (842KB) ( 709 )   Save
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    The premium functional on capacity space was investigated, and the results prove that the premium functional that satisfies monotonicity of the distribution, comonotonic additivity and normativity can be represented as Choquet integral with respect to the distorted capacity. And then the theorem of the existence and uniqueness of the distorted function g and some related properties of the distorted capacity were obtained.

    The r-th moment consistency of estimators for a semi-parametric regression model for positively associated errors
    LI Yong-ming1, DING Li-wang2
    J4. 2013, 48(1):  83-88. 
    Abstract ( 538 )   PDF (815KB) ( 949 )   Save
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    Considering the semiparametric regression model Yni=β·tni+g(xni)+εni, 1≤i≤n, where {εni, 1≤i≤n} are positively associated errors. Under suitable conditions, the rth moment consistency of the estimators for the unknown g(·) and β were obtained.

    A new method of DEA efficiency ranking for decision making units with independent subsystems
    DONG Wei-wei
    J4. 2013, 48(1):  89-92. 
    Abstract ( 459 )   PDF (893KB) ( 851 )   Save
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    Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is a tool to assess relative efficiencies with a group of decision making units (DMUs). As in ranking process, it  the best and worst efficiency scores of a DMU are compared at the same time, the results will be more reasonable. The CEF (complete envelopment frontier) based on super efficiency DEA model, virtual DMU and nonradial C2GS2 model were used in DMUs with independent subsystems, then a new twostages model which considering the preference of decisionmaker or the importance of different index were proposed. Final, the data example proves that the ranking results of the improved model are fair, reasonable and full.

    Absorbing probabilities of random walks in an independent random  environment convergence in distribution on the half-line
    REN Min1,2, ZHANG Guang-hui1
    J4. 2013, 48(1):  93-99. 
    Abstract ( 461 )   PDF (869KB) ( 380 )   Save
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     Random walk with absorbing barrier in an independent random environment on the half line was studied. Under some special conditions,a strong law of large number was proven, and then applied it to discuss its absorbing probabilities.

    The precise large deviations for a risk model with extended negatively upper orthant dependent claim  sizes
    TANG Feng-qin1, BAI Jian-ming2
    J4. 2013, 48(1):  100-106. 
    Abstract ( 448 )   PDF (895KB) ( 611 )   Save
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    A risk model involves multiple kinds of independent policies was proposed. For each kind of the policy, the claim sizes are supposed as extended negatively upper orthant dependent random variables with heavytailed distributions. The large deviations for partial sums and the random sums were respectively obtained in the loss process of the model.

    The application of evolutionary graph theory in the design of knowledge-based enterprises’ organization strucure
    ZHANG Jing-you, ZHANG Pei-ai, ZHONG Hai-ping
    J4. 2013, 48(1):  107-110. 
    Abstract ( 499 )   PDF (1356KB) ( 678 )   Save
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     In the framework of evolutionary graph theory,  the new updated rule named “Link Dynamics” was applied to calculate the fixation probability of a mutant mutated in the population whose spatial structure is a circulation. Then the application with related theories was researched to improve the reasonable programming of organization structure in the knowledgebased enterprises. The different patterns of enterprises’ organization structure were compared by the evolutionary graphs of simulations. The conclusion is that the boundless organization structure with the property of circulation is a much more reasonable organization structure in knowledgebased enterprises. Simultaneously, the application of evolutionary graph theory is correspondingly extended to economics.