Table of Content

    20 July 2019
    Volume 54 Issue 7
    Plant diversity in nature reserves of Shandong Province
    Xiu-hua ZHANG,Hai-ying QI,Ren-qing WANG,Jian LIU
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE). 2019, 54(7):  1-10.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2019.136
    Abstract ( 475 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (3185KB) ( 202 )   Save
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    The plant diversity of 25 nature reserves above provincial-level with high species diversity in Shandong Province are investigated, and there were 175 families, 918 genera and 2 362 vascular plant species are found, which protected more than 93% vascular plant species in Shandong Province. Qingdao Laoshan provincial nature reserve has the highest plant diversity, followed by Taishan provincial nature reserve and Kunyu mountain national nature reserve among the studied nature reserves by using several biological diversity measurement analysis. A total of 152 rare and endangered plant species were found in the studied nature reserves, and Qingdao Laoshan provincial nature reserve has the most abundant species. According to the existing data, there are 289 alien plant species in the studied area, of which 98 invasive species. We found that all the studied nature reserves have been invaded by alien plant species, and the number of alien herbaceous is far more than alien woody plant. In addition, the reserves with abundant species are invaded by a larger number of alien plant species. The above research can provide scientific basis for plant diversity protection and management of nature reserve in Shandong Province.

    Study on coupling relationship between urban land use and ecological environment in cities of the Yellow River Delta
    Hao CHEN,Ren-qing WANG,Jian LIU
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE). 2019, 54(7):  11-20.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2018.755
    Abstract ( 361 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (686KB) ( 126 )   Save
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    In order to explore the coupling relationship between urban land use and ecological environment, and promote the harmonious development of land use and ecological environment, the core cities of the Yellow River Delta, Dongying and Binzhou, were selected as the study areas. The coupling coordination measure model was used to analyze the land use comprehensive index, the ecological environment comprehensive index and the coupling coordination degree of the two systems from 2002 to 2016. Meanwhile, sensitivity verification was carried out on the weights of indicators. The results showed that the comprehensive index of land use and ecological environment in Dongying and Binzhou had an upward trend from 2002 to 2016, from the perspective of coupling degree and coupling coordination degree, the research areas were in a good coupling stage, and the coordinated development of land use and ecological environment experienced five stages from moderate imbalanced to well coordinated. The weights of indicators determined by the entropy method was reasonable and reliable. The study not only provide the scientific basis for the management of the two cities, but also provide study the method and reference for other similar cities.

    Study on vegetation composition and flora of river wetlands in Shandong Province
    Yu LIANG,Xiao-li FAN,Liang MA,Qiang WANG,Yong FANG,Wei-dong WANG
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE). 2019, 54(7):  21-25.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2019.137
    Abstract ( 355 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (1227KB) ( 93 )   Save
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    Wetlands are one of the most important terrestrial carbon pools in the world, they are also sensitive to global change. Based on the investigation data, we analysesed the vegetation composition, plant growth pattern and floristic geographical composition of river wetlands in Shandong Province, and expounede the relationship between them and plants. The rivers wetland area in Shandong Province is 257 795.20 hm2, accounting for 14.84% of the whole province wetland area.There are 301 species of plants belonging to 216 genera and 82 families in the rivers wetlands of Shandong Province. There are 15 distribution types and 12 variants in floristic geography. There are 145 genera distributed indistribution types and variants of temperate and tropical characteristics, accounting for 67.13% of the total genera, reflecting the temperate and tropical characteristics of plant genera distribution.

    Effects of salt stress on the growth and photosynthetic production of Euonymus hamiltonianus
    Shi-yuan MENG,Qian WANG,Ye WEI,Chun-hui LING,Ying ZHANG,Hua-tian WANG,Xiu-mei LIU
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE). 2019, 54(7):  26-34.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2018.730
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    A potted experiment was conducted to explore the effects of salt stress on seedling growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Euonymus hamiltonianus. The biennial seedlings were exposed to different contents of NaCl solutions (0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 g·L-1) for 30 days. The photosynthetic gas exchange parameters [i.e. net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (Gs) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci)], biomass properties, relative electrical conductivity, pigment contents and kinetic characteristics of chlorophyll fluorescence were measured, aiming to investigate the adaptation mechanism to salt stress of E. hamiltonianus. The results showed that: Compared with CK, salt stress induced a significant decrease of Pn, Tr, Gs, limiting value of stomata(Ls) and water use efficiency (WUE), whereas it caused by a marked increase of Ci under different NaCl solutions in E. seedlings. The maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and the number of active reaction centers per unit area (RC/CSm) in the blade were reduced under saline treatments compared to that of in the controls, and both of the Fv/Fm and RC/CSm got significant differences. The points of K to J in the OJIL curve were increased and reached markedly differences, while the pigments contents were significantly decreased, induced by the salt conditions. Besides, compared with CK, the root-shoot ratio (R/S) and Ec had no obvious difference in the treatment of 2.0 g·L-1, while they were significantly higher in treatments of 4.0, 6.0 g·L-1. In conclusions, from the above results we could conclude that E. hamiltonianus had cer-tain tolerance to low concentration of salt stress, but higher NaCl concentration could suppressed seedling growth for it inhibited the activity of PSⅡ, reduced photosynthetic performance and use efficiency of mineral nutrients, resulting in a poor growth and even death of the plants.

    Synthesis of novel taxoid-biotin conjugate
    Yun-rong JING,Chang-wei WANG
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE). 2019, 54(7):  35-41.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2018.264
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    The conjugate is designed to be specific to the biotin receptors overexpressed on tumor cell surface and internalized efficiently through receptor-mediated endocytosis, followed by smooth drug release via glutathione-triggered self-immolation of the linker. An efficient mechanism-based tumor-targeting drug delivery system, based on tumor-specific biotin-receptor mediated endocytosis, has reduced the undesirable side effects associated with the traditional cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents which lack of selectivity to tumor cells and normal cells. The disulfide linker is prepared by subsititution of sulfhydryl group. The tumor-targeting molecule biotin moiety is prepared by conversion of carboxylic acid group to acyl hydrazide group. Fluorotaxane SB-T-12854 with anti multidrug resistance is choosed as th cytotoxic agent. The tumor-targeting drug delivery system is a novel conjugate of a cytotoxic agent (SB-T-12854), a disulfide linker and a tumor-targeting molecule (biotin).

    Comparison of concentrations and chemical compositions of PM10 during hazy and non-hazy days in Beijing and Islamabad
    Xian-chu WU,Bin CHEN,Tian-xue WEN,Imran SHAHID,Ammara HABIB,Guang-yu SHI
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE). 2019, 54(7):  42-49, 56.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2019.039
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    In order to study the characteristics of heavy metals, water-soluble inorganic ions and carbon components in winter PM10 in Beijing and Islamabad, PM10 samples were collected at urban site in Beijing and Islamabad from December 2014-January 2015. The concentrations of above three compositions of PM10were analyzed. The results indicated that the concentrations of heavy metals were at high levels during sampling period in both two sites. The concentrations of As、Cr(Ⅵ) in Beijing and Cd、Cr(Ⅵ) in Islamabad were both exceeded the WHO guideline. Heavy metals were enhanced during haze days. The main sources of heavy metals were coal burning and automobile in Beijing, while in Islamabad was mainly automobile according to PCA. Secondary pollution of water-soluble inorganic ions in atmosphere in both sites was heavy. The concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions also enhanced due to automobile. Correlation between OC and EC was strong(especially in non-haze days) in Beijing but it was low in Islamabad. They implied that OC and EC tended to be mainly from the same primary sources and were controlled by similar processes after being emitted in Beijing, mainly due to coal burning and automobile; but the source of carbonaceous species was relatively complex in Islamabad. The concentration of SOC in sampling period in Beijing was 2.58 μg/m3, accounting for only 10.1% of the OC mass concentration; while there was basically no SOC in Islamabad.

    Short-term load forecasting model based on autoencoder and PSOA-CNN
    Wen-qing WANG,Ao-yang HAN,Li-tao YU,Zhi-sheng ZHANG
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE). 2019, 54(7):  50-56.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2018.715
    Abstract ( 473 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (1064KB) ( 183 )   Save
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    A short-term load forecasting model which combines the autoencoder and convolutional neural network optimized by particle swarm optimization is proposed. Firstly, the autoencoder is used to process the relevant variable data, reduce the noise variable of the required data, and improve the prediction efficiency. Then particle swarm optimization is used to optimize the weight and threshold of the convolutional neural network., which can effectively improve the prediction accuracy and prediction speed of the prediction model. By simulating the load data of the actual power grid, it is verified that the proposed model has higher prediction accuracy.

    Review spam detection based on the two-level stacking classification model
    Xiang-wen LIAO,Yang XU,Jing-jing WEI,Ding-da YANG,Guo-long CHEN
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE). 2019, 54(7):  57-67.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.1.2018.077
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    For the issue of review spam detection, on the one hand, the time and space complexity of existing methods is high when extracting user behavior relationships and training neural network. On the other hand, the non-standard writing format of E-commercial reviews leads to the indistinct contextual features and most experiment did not consider the effect of the imbalance of data. Therefore, we propose a method for review spam detection based on a two-level stacking classification model. In the method, the relationship between users and products is represented by a triplet. In order to characterize user's behavior and reduce complexity, low-dimensional feature representations are obtained by the principal component analysis. Then, the extracted paragraphs vector representation, information entropy and text similarity is represented as discrete feature to avoid indistinct of contextual features. Finally, the three connections are taken as the overall features combining text and behavioral features. These features are regarded as the input of the two-level stacking classification model in order to improve performance in unbalanced dataset. We conducted experiments in the Yelp 2013 dataset. Experimental results show the F1 value of our proposed method is 1.7%—5.2% better than the state-of-the-art method. What's more, the classification performance is significantly improved in the unbalanced dataset.

    Dialogue generation model based on extended keywords information
    Chang-ying HAO,Yan-yan LAN,Hai-nan ZHANG,Jia-feng GUO,Jun XU,Liang PANG,Xue-qi CHENG
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE). 2019, 54(7):  68-76.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.1.2018.120
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    Noting that people often reply to others based on the keywords in the post. In order to generate meaningful responses about the keywords, we proposed a dialogue generation model based on an attention mechanism with extended keywords information. First, we extract the keywords of the input, and then form the extended keywords set based on the words which are related to the input keywords using the cosine similarity. The words in the extended keywords set affect the response generation with the attention mechanism. Experiments on the Chinese Weibo dataset and the English Twitter dataset show that our model outperforms the traditional seq2seq model and its variations in both the metric-based evaluation and the human-evaluation.

    vTCM: a virtualized trusted cryptography module based on the virtualization of physical trusted computing environment
    Jun HU,Zi-peng DIAO
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE). 2019, 54(7):  77-88.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.2.2018.211
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    The trust of virtual machine is one of the key issues of virtual machine security. As the source of computer trust, the application of trust cryptography module(TCM) in virtual machine gets more and more attention. A virtual trust cryptography module scheme is presented, which designs a physical vTCM(virtual trusted cryptography module) running environment which can be implemented by expand current TCM(trusted cryptography module) scheme to several switchable vTCM scene, and schedule these vTCM scene to support the TCM access of virtual machines, assign a bound vTCM instance to each virtual machine, and all vTCM instances would run in vTCM scene in turn. The scheme can enhance the trust of vTCM, make management and migration of vTCM more easier. The scheme is implemented in KVM virtualization platform, it shows a good compatibility with existing systems.

    Qualitative analysis of an SIRI epidemic model with stochastic effects
    GAO Jian-zhong, ZHANG Tai-lei
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE). 2019, 54(7):  89-99.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2018.588
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    An SIRI bilinear epidemic model with stochastic effects is studied. The global existence, uniqueness and boundedness of its positive solution are proved by using stopping time theory and Lyapunov analysis method. It is also shown that the solution of the stochastic model oscillates around the corresponding deterministic disease-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium points, and the sufficient conditions for persistence in mean of the solution of the stochastic model and disease extinction are obtained. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out to prove the validity of theoretical results.
    A global word vector model based on pointwise mutual information
    LI Wan-li, TANG Jing-yao, XUE Yun, HU Xiao-hui, ZHANG Tao
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE). 2019, 54(7):  100-105.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.1.2018.104
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    A global word vector training model based on pointwise mutual information was presented. The model used another correlation information, the ratio of the joint probability and the product of the marginal probability, to depict the relationship between words and avoid the shortcoming of conditional probability. In order to verify the validity of our model, we trained word embedding by GloVe and our model in the same situation and then carried out experiments with word analogy and word similarity separately using these two word embeddings. Experiments showed our model has achieved 10.50%, 4.43%, 1.02% better accuracy rate than the GloVe model does in sematic experiments of word analogy at 100 dimensionality, 200 dimensionality, 300 dimensionality respectively. Accuracy rate has also gained 5%-6% rise in word similarity experiments. The results show that our model can capture semantics of words more effectively.
    A fast DGA domain detection algorithm based on deep learning
    LIU Yang, ZHAO Ke-jun, GE Lian-sheng, LIU Heng
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE). 2019, 54(7):  106-112.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2019.249
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    A CNN-LSTM-Concat fast DGA domain classification algorithm based on deep learning is proposed. The multi-layer one-dimensional convolution networks are used to serialize domain name characters. The LSTM network layer is used to enhance the long-distance dependence between characters. By converting the multi-sequence input of LSTM into a single vector input, the training and detection speed can be greatly improved under the premise of ensuring the detection performance. Experiments show that our method has a precision of 98.32% for DGA domain classification using public datasets. At the same time, the detection time is 6.41 times faster than the LSTM method when the accuracy is higher than the epidemic LSTM methods.
    Covariance of the marked process of censored δ-shock model
    YE Jian-hua, ZHENG Ying, LIU Hua
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE). 2019, 54(7):  113-116.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2018.341
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    Based on the study of covariance of self-excited filtering Poisson process, the explicit expression of covariance of the marked process of censored δ shock model is derived, which extends the theory of δ-shock model.
    Analysis of strategies in multi-sided markets
    XU Jin, ZHANG Jiang-hua
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE). 2019, 54(7):  117-123.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2018.451
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    Multi-sided markets is an important phenomenon in economy. A model of multi-sided markets including platform, users, advertisers and content providers is constructed. The platform pricing of social welfare maximization and profit maximization is studied, the profits of the platform in two-sided and multi-sided markets is compared, and the optimal service level of the platform is discussed. The following conclusions are drawn:(1)The fees of the platform for the 3 types of participants are related to the cost, the external contribution of participants and the flexibility of their participation;(2)Whether the platform chooses a multi-sided markets model with advertisers depends on the positive and negative impact of advertising on the platform, that is, to compare the direct benefits of advertising to the platform and the loss of the number of users caused by the reduction of advertising;(3)The optimal service level provided by the platform to users is related to the externality of users to content providers and advertisers, the cost of service provided by the platform will be transferred to other participants.
    A note on Pósas inequality
    ZHANG Shao-hua
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY(NATURAL SCIENCE). 2019, 54(7):  124-126.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-9352.0.2018.566
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    The problem involving prime inequalities is investigated, several new inequalities about prime numbers are obtained, which improve the works of Pósa.